CARCINOMA OF THE BREAST

 

Breast cancer is a common cancer. With the use of breast-self examination and early mammography, breast cancer is being diagnosed at an early stage. In reality, breast cancer is many diseases depending on the type of tissue involved, the age of the patient and whether the patient is estrogen dependent. Treatment is dictated by the staging of the tumor. It may include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy.

 

 

NURSING INTERVENTIONS:

 

      Give psychological support to the patient and her family.

      Weight and size the patient.

      Encourage to develop physical examination of breast : Lesions usually occur in upper outer quadrant of the breast. It is usually hard, irregularly shaped, no mobile, and poorly delineated.

      Encourage complete physical with pelvic examination, evaluation for signs of cancer in other locations (Lymph nodes, liver)

      Take test orders to the clinical laboratory and give them back to the ward, take the patient to the x-ray, ultrasound, and CT Scan departments.

      Encourage and support patient when making biopsy and mammography.

      Give sanitary education in relation with her disease, surgical procedure, and post-operative care, assess for impact of change in patient's self perception after surgery, such as behavior focused on altered body part, concerns about loss of feminity, sexual identity, negative feelings about body image.

      Encourage and instruct patient about the important of monthly examination and annual mammogram of remain breast.

      Cure of the wound daily.

      Teach about wound /arm care.

      Protect wound/arm from injury and infections.

      Teach patient about possible complications such as: Vacuum, clots, fluid accumulation, tenderness, drain malfunctions.

      Keep arm elevated on two pillows while patient in bed to decrease edema and promote lymph drainage.

      Administer medications prescribed by the doctor on time during hospitalization and encourage the importance of the follow-up consultation with medical and radiation specialist depending on nodal status.

      Administer analgesics for pain.

      Assess for signs of anxiety /fear.

      Observe the patient's reactions.

      Write the observations on the patient's chart.