It is a paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by adventitious sounds (wheezing) caused by the swelling and spasm of bronchial tubes. This reversible condition is commonly precipitated by antigen antibody reactions, respiratory infections, cold weather, physical exertion, emotions and some drugs.





      Give psychological support to the patient and his/her family .

      Assess vital signs every hour when patient is in distress.

      Note color changes (lips, bucal mucosa, nail beds).

      Administer medications as ordered: IV fluids, IV Theophylline may be ordered for severe attacks, steroids, and others.

      Keep head of bed elevated to allow for adequate lung excursion and chest expansion

      Assess whether medication used for treatments is effectively relieving symptoms leading to distress.

      Auscultate lungs for early detection and correction of abnormalities.

      Assess for dyspnea, use of accessory muscles, coastal retractions, and flaring of the nares.

      Give humidified oxygen as ordered.

      Maintain patient airway.

      Encourage oral fluid intake by providing water.

      Observe the signs of dehydration.

      Keep the patient as calm as possible. Anxiety during an asthma attack can further potenciate the exacerbation

      Encourage patient to cough, especially after treatments.

      Assess color and amount of urine because concentrated urine denotes fluid deficit.

      Explain the importance of remaining as calm as possible.

      Provide diversional activities.

      Allow family to remain with patient if possible.

      Provide prevented care such as:

. Home management of acute attacks.

. Reinforce need for taking prescribed medications as ordered to minimize distress.

      Offer a good sanitary education in relation with the disease.

      Teach good health habits.

      Teach the family how to administer respiratory treatments, respiratory physiotherapy, and inhalers.